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  • Writer's pictureLewis Grunfeld, CPA

Form 5472 Filing Requirements for Foreign-Owned LLC's

Updated: Dec 26, 2023

What is IRS Form 5472?

The purpose of Form 5472 is to keep track of and report on transactions that occur between certain foreign-owned businesses operating in the United States and their foreign owners or related parties. This helps prevent the evasion of taxes, ensures compliance with U.S. tax laws, and maintains accurate records of cross-border transactions. Ultimately, the goal of Form 5472 is to foster openness and responsibility in international business operations conducted within the United States.


Who Needs to File Form 5472?

The following entities are generally required to file Form 5472:

  • Businesses with foreign ownership: If a company operating in the United States is owned by one or more individuals or entities from another country, and the foreign ownership comprises at least 25% of the company, it falls under the category of foreign-owned U.S. corporations.

  • US corporations (such as LLC's) with foreign shareholders: Certain U.S. corporations that engage in reportable transactions with foreign owners or affiliated parties during the tax year are also required to file Form 5472.

Key Information Required on Form 5472

The following is a summary of information required to be reported on form 5472:

  • Basic information about the reporting corporation, such as its name, address, and employer identification number (EIN).

  • Information about the foreign owner(s), including their name, address, and country of residence and percentage of ownership.

  • Details regarding reportable transactions between the reporting corporation and the foreign owner or related parties.

  • Identification of any related parties parties involved in the reportable transactions.


Filing Process and 2023 Deadlines

Form 5472 must be filed annually for each tax year, capturing reportable transactions during that period. The form should be attached to the reporting corporation's income tax return. U.S. corporations usually attach it to Form 1120, their standard income tax return. Form 5472 is due by the reporting corporation's income tax return deadline, including extensions. Deadlines vary based on the tax year and filing status. For 2023, a company with a December year-end would need to file Form 5472 by April 15, 2024. If an extension is requested, this deadline would be extended to October 15, 2024.


Penalties for Non-Compliance in Regards to Form 5472

Failure to comply with the requirements of Form 5472 can have serious consequences, including penalties imposed by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). Here are the penalties that may apply:

  1. Failure to File Penalty: If a reporting corporation fails to submit Form 5472 by the deadline, including extensions, the IRS can impose a penalty of $25,000 per tax year. This penalty is applied separately for each reportable transaction.

  2. Incomplete or Inaccurate Filing Penalty: If the information provided on Form 5472 is incomplete, inaccurate, or lacks proper documentation, the IRS may assess a penalty of $10,000 per tax year. This penalty also applies when the reporting corporation fails to report all reportable transactions.

  3. Continued Failure to File Penalty: If the reporting corporation doesn't rectify the failure to file within 90 days of receiving an IRS notice, an additional penalty of $25,000 per tax year will be imposed. This penalty continues to accrue until the form is properly submitted.

Reasonable Cause Exception: The IRS may waive penalties if the reporting corporation can show that the failure to file or inaccuracies were due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect. To claim this exception, the reporting corporation must provide a reasonable explanation and supporting evidence.


It's crucial to be aware that penalties can accumulate rapidly, particularly if multiple reportable transactions are involved. To avoid penalties, it's advisable to understand the filing requirements, complete Form 5472 accurately, and submit it within the specified deadlines.


For further details on this topic, please consult the form 5472 instructions.


Looking for Help with Form 5472? CPAs for Expats is Here to Support You!


At CPAs for Expats, we specialize in helping International taxpayers stay compliant with their US taxes. Our low fees and 4.9/5 rating on independent review platforms attests to our commitment to excellence and client satisfaction. Contact us today, and let our tax experts simplify your life and taxes.




Frequently Asked Questions

The following are some of the more common questions we've encountered from foreign llc owners in regards to form 5472.

What is IRS Form 5472?

Who needs to file Form 5472?

What transactions are reported on Form 5472?

When is Form 5472 due?

Are there penalties for not filing Form 5472?

Can a foreign person own a US LLC?


Article by Lewis Grunfeld, CPA

Lewis Grunfeld, CPA, is a renowned expert in international and U.S. expat taxation, with expertise spanning over ten years. He has successfully helped thousands of expats around the world navigate complex international U.S. tax regulations, and achieve significant tax savings. His work is driven by a strongly rooted passion for assisting the expat community through a wide range of tax situations, ensuring tailored solutions for each unique situation.



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